高中英语语法总结:特殊句式

完全倒装

1.常常指时间,地点的副词及方位的副词和介词短语here, there, up, down, in, away, off, out, now, then位于句首。

At the foot of the hill lies a beautiful lake.// Away flew the bird.

注意:  

a. 代词作主语时,主谓不倒装Here he comes.

b. 此结构不用于进行时态。

2.表语提前: 形容词/过去分词/现在分词/介词短语

Included among the presents is an ipad that his father gave him.

Sitting on the rock is a girl who wants to commit suicide.

部分倒装一般包括:

a. 某些否定词位于句首时,如:rarely, scarcely, nowhere,  no more

hardly/scarcely/barely…when; no sooner …than; not only…but also…; so/ nor/ neither…;not until…

b. only +副词、介词短语、状语从句位于句首作状语时.

c. so/such…that 结构中so+adj/adv/such+n等位于句首时

So fashionable are the clothes she was wearing that she became the focus of attention.

Such fashionable clothes was she wearing that she became the…

另:Such are the facts: no one can deny.

d. 省略if的虚拟条件状语从句,had, were, should提前

注:not /to在原位。

e. 用于as(though)引导的让步状语从句

Search as they would/Much as he likes the bike/ Exhausted as she was

f. 用于某些表示祝愿的句子

Long live Chairman Mao!  May you succeed!

Wish you success/successful!

 

 

 

2强调

It is/was +被强调部分+that/who+其它句子成分

 此句型的常见考点有:

a.还可用It might be/ must have been/ can it be…that 等句式。

It might have been John that bought a new book for Mary .

b.It was not until…that…

昨天直到半夜我才上床睡觉。  

It was not until midnight that I went to bed.

Not until midnight did I go to bed.

c.含有特殊疑问词的强调句词序

When and where was it that you were born?

I’ve already forgotten where it was that you put the dictionary.

d.强调句中的主谓一致问题

It is not help but obstacles that make a man.

It is the sales manager, rather than/instead of/not/other than the sales girls, that is to blame.

e.与其他从句的比较

It was in the small house which/ that was built with stones by his father that he spent his childhood.(which/that)

It was playing computer games that cost the boy plenty of

time (which/that) he ought to have spent doing his lessons.(which/that)

f.强调句的省略

---He was nearly drowned once. ---When was it?

---It was in 1998 when he was in middle school.

--Who is making so much noise in the garden?—It is the children.

2.do/does/did + 动词原形

Do come early.    He does/did know Beijing well.

 

3省略

状语从句中省略主语的情况:

a. 从属连词 + 动词: 不定式、现在分词、过去分词,如:

He opened his mouth as if to say something.

He looked around as if looking for something.

He let out a scream as if bitten by the snake.

b. 从属连词 +  非动词: 名词、形容词、副词、介词短语,如:

Unless necessary, you’d better not refer to the dictionary.

注意:before/after/since 不属此列

2. 不定式的省略:

He did not give me the chance, though he had promised

如果不定式中含有be, have, have been通常保留

---Are you an engineer?  ---No, but I want to be.

---He hasn’t finished the task yet.---Well, he ought to have.

3. 省略了一个从句或从句的一部分,用sonot(切不可用itthat)代替。

(1) ---- Is he coming back tonight?

---- I think so.

 (2)---- Is he feeling better today?---- I’m afraid not.

一.倒装句的考查要点

1.全部倒装

(1)There be/seem/appear/live/stand/lie/fly/exist/remain等存在句中。

Lookthere’s that bookshop I was telling you about.

(2)表示时间、地点和动作转移的副词如heretherenowthenupdowninawayout等置于句首,主语是名词而不是代词时,用完全倒装。此时,句子多用一般现在时或一般过去时。

There goes the phone.I’ll answer it.

(3)such作表语置于句首时。

Such was Albert Einsteina simple man but the 20th century’s greatest scientist.

(4)直接引语的全部或部分位于句首时。

“If you diewho will get your money” asked Holmes.

(5)表示地点的介词短语位于句首时。

In the center of the square stands a monument.

(6)为平衡句子结构,或使上下文衔接紧密,而将作表语的介词短语、形容词、副词或分词提到句首,引起倒装。

Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil.

 

2.部分倒装

在下列几种情况下,只把助动词、系动词或情态动词放在主语之前,构成部分倒装。

(1)littlenevernotseldomneithernorhardlyrarelyby no meansat no timeunder no circumstancesin no case等表示否定意义的单词或短语位于句首时。

Little does he care about what others think.

(2)not...until...no sooner...than...scarcely/hardly...when...not only...but also...neither...nor...等句式中。

Neither does he drink nor smoke.

(3)only修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时。

Only then did I find I had made a mistake.

(4)so/such...that...从句中,当so+形容词/副词或such+名词位于句首时。

So exhausted was she that she wanted to have a rest.

(5)当表示前面所说的情况也适用于另一个人或事物时,常用“so/asbe动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,表示“……也是……”

Times have changed and so have I.

(6)neithernor位于句首,表示前面否定的内容也适用于另一个人或事物时,常用“neither/norbe动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,表示“……也不……”

They couldn’t understand it at that timeand nor could we.

(7)省略if的虚拟条件句,把助动词werehadshould提到主语前面。

Had it not been for your helpwe shouldn’t have achieved so much.

(8)asthough引导的让步状语从句。

Try as she mightSue couldn’t get the door open.

(9)“may+动词原形表示祝愿,通常把may置于句首,构成倒装语序。

May you succeed

 

二.强调句的考查要点

1.使用助动词dodoesdid对谓语动词进行强调。

First impressions really do count.

2.运用强调句型来强调除谓语动词以外的其他句子成分。

强调句型的基本句型结构为:It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+其他成分。可用来强调句子的主语、宾语、状语、表语、同位语等成分。在复习强调句型时,要注意以下几个方面:

(1)强调句型中的主谓一致

在强调句型中,当对陈述句中的主语进行强调时,无论被强调的主语是单数还是复数,主句中的谓语动词都要用单数形式It is/was...,同时,that从句中的谓语动词要与被强调的主语在人称和数方面保持一致。

It is my parents that/who often help me get out of trouble.

(2)当对地点状语、时间状语或其他状语从句进行强调时,只能用连接词that,而不能用wherewhenwhyhow等。

It was on August 8,2008 that the 29th Summer Olympic Games were opened in Beijing.

(3)强调句型的疑问句

在强调句中,无论被强调部分是什么句子成分,变为一般疑问句时,都须将主句改为疑问语序,即将“It is/was+被强调部分+that+其他成分改为“Is/Was it+被强调部分+that+其他成分?疑问词+is/was it that+其他成分?结构。

Was it her failing her exam that made her parents unhappy

When was it that she changed her mind

(4)在对not...until...结构中的until时间状语或时间状语从句进行强调时,要将句中的not移至until之前,构成:It is/was not until...that...。注意that从句中的谓语动词要变成肯定形式,而且不再采用倒装语序。

I didn’t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.

 

三.省略句的考查要点

1.状语从句中的省略

whenwhileifas ifalthough/thoughasuntiloncewhetherunlesswhere等引导的状语从句中,如果其谓语动词为be,而主语与主句的主语相同时,则从句的主语和be可省略;或从句的主语为it,谓语动词为be时,也可省略从句中的itbe

When (I am) in troubleI always turn to my classmates for help.

If (it is) possiblethis machine can be fixed at once.

 

2.不定式的省略

单独使用不定式符号to代替不定式后被省略的动词,常用在be afraidexpectforgethopeintendlikelovemeanpreferrefusetrywantwish等词后;或放在表情绪的词后,代替被省略的动词,常见词有:gladhappypleased等;但是,如果不定式中含有behavehave been,则要保留behavehave been

—Will you please look after my house when I’m away

—I’m glad to.

—Are you a sailor

—No.But I used to be.

Your work hasn’t been handed inbut it ought to have been.

 

3.常考的几个省略形式

if everif anyif not better/worse/taller...than等。

 

4.并列句中的省略

并列句中的两个对等句里的动词相同时,后者的动词可以省略。

He is going to Hong Kongbut his brother (is going) to America.

My room is on the third floor and hison the fifth.

◆注意事项

1.如果由特殊疑问词引导的强调结构在句中作宾语从句时,从句必须使用陈述语序,不可用疑问语序。

He asked me who it was that took his umbrella by mistake.

2.强调句型结构中的反意疑问句式。

在强调句型结构中,其反意疑问句的主语及助动词必须与主句It is/was...保持一致。

It is Mary not you who wants to ask me about that matterisn’t it

3.强调句型结构与定语从句的混合使用。

在高考试题中,为了增加试题的难度,命题人常将强调句型与定语从句混合起来,使句子结构更加复杂。我们要注意从语法角度来分析句子,理清结构强调句型与定语从句

It was on the farm where we worked that I got to know her.

4.强调句型与时间状语从句的辨析。

当用强调句型强调时间状语时,去掉“it is/was”和连词“that”,原句仍然完整;而在时间状语从句中,若去掉“it is/was”和连词“when/before”,原句不完整。

It was at 1428 that the terrible earthquake broke out.(强调句型)

It was 1428 when the terrible earthquake broke out.(状语从句)

 

 四、祈使句的重要考点

祈使句常常是表达说话人对对方的劝告、叮嘱、请求或命令等。因此,祈使句中一般没有主语,但根据其句意,实际上是省略了主语you。祈使句句末用感叹号或句号,朗读时,常用降调。在表达请求或劝告时,在祈使句前或句末可加上please,以使句子的语气更加缓和或客气。祈使句一般没有时态的变化,也不能与情态动词连用。

Keep off the grass! 勿踩踏草地!

Put the boxes in the small room. 把那些盒子放到那个小房间里。

祈使句的否定句式

祈使句的否定句式,通常情况下在句首加上Don’tNever,一般分为以下四种类型:

1. 在祈使句的肯定句式前加Don’t,构成"Don’t+行为动词原形+其他成分"。

Don’t say that again! 别再那样说了!

2. Be动词引起的肯定祈使句前加Don’t,构成"Don’t be+其他成分(形容词、名词或介词短语等)"。

Don’t be careless. 不要粗心。

注意:在这种句型中be不能省略;否定副词not不可置于be之后。

3. Let引起的祈使句的否定形式有两种:(1)Let开头的祈使句,如果后面跟第一、第三人称名词或代词的宾格,可在Let前加Don’t,也可在Let后宾格的名词或代词后面加not(2)如果以Let’s开头的祈使句,必须在Let’s后加not

Don’t let me go with her tomorrow. =Let me not go with her tomorrow. 不要让我明天跟她一起去。

Let’s not tell her the truth whenever we meet her. 无论什么时候我们碰到她,都不要告诉她真相。

4. 在公共场合的提示语中,否定祈使句常用"No+名词/V-ing形式"结构,表示"禁止做某事"。

NO PHOTOS! 禁止拍照!

 

祈使句的反意问句

祈使句的反意疑问句须按其句子结构及讲话人的语气来决定其疑问部分。通常有以下三种形式:

1. 祈使句为肯定句式,其反意疑问句表示请求时,通常用will you;表示邀请、劝说时,用won’t you

Be sure to write to us, will you? 你一定要给我们写信,好吗?

Come to have dinner with us this evening, won’t you? 今晚来和我们一起吃饭,好吗?

2. 祈使句为否定句式,其反意疑问句通常只用will you

Don’t smoke in the meeting room, will you? 不要在会议室抽烟,好吗?

3. Let开头的祈使句构成反意疑问句时,除Let’sshall we外,其他均用will you

Let the boy go first, will you? 让个那男孩先走,好吗?

Let’s take a walk after supper, shall we? 晚饭后我们去散步,好吗?

、祈使句的回答

祈使句的动作通常是表示将来发生的动作,所以回答祈使句时,一般用willwon’t。在回答具有否定意义的祈使句时,要注意两点:一是"形式一致",即Yeswill保持一致;Nowon’t保持一致。二是"思相反",即Yes是"不"的意思;No是"是"的意思。在回答时,要注意分析上下文语境中所提供的条件。

—Don’t go out, please. It’s raining heavily outside. 请不要出去。外面雨下得很大。

—Yes, I will. I have to meet my brother at the airport. 不行,我得去机场接我弟弟。

祈使句与陈述句的并列使用

祈使句后接陈述句时,须用连接词连接。如果祈使句与陈述句表示的是一种顺承关系时,要用并列连词and来连接;如果祈使句与陈述句存在一种否定条件关系时,要用并列连词or来连接。

Leave it with me and I will see what I can do. 把它留给我吧,我想想有没有办法。

Hurry up, or we’ll be late. 快点,否则我们要迟到了。

祈使句与条件状语从句的连用

祈使句与条件状语从句连用时,条件状语从句可置于祈使句前或后。

Tell him to make a phone call to me if he comes here tomorrow. 如果他明天来这儿的话,叫他给我来个电话。

祈使句的强调形式

祈使句的强调形式通常在肯定祈使句式前加上助动词Do(Do在句中无意义)

Do shut up! 快住口!

特殊形式的祈使句

在英语中,有些祈使句不是以动词原形来引起一个祈使句,而是以一个名词短语来充当,且后接一个带有并列连接词的分句。实际上,这个充当祈使句的名词短语相当于一个条件状语从句。

More water and the young trees couldn’t have died. =If you had given them more water, the young trees couldn’t have died. 如果你给那些小树多浇点水的话,它们就不会死了。

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