高中英语狂K语法:主谓一致


高中英语狂K语法:主谓一致  第1张

主谓一致是指:

1)语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。

2)意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。

3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语。一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。

例如:There is much water in the thermos.

但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。

例如:Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.

 

1 并列结构作主语时谓语用复数

例如:Reading and writing are very important. 读写很重要。

注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。

例如:The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.

钢铁工业对我们的生活有重要意义。

典型例题

The League secretary and monitor ____ asked to make a speech at the meeting.

A. is  B. was  C. are  D. were

答案B。

解析:先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A和C。本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好像是两个人,但仔细辨别,monitor前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。xk.w

2 主谓一致中的靠近原则

1)当there be句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。

例如:

There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk.

桌上有一支笔、一把小刀和几本书。

There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.

班上有二十个男孩,二十三个女孩。

2)当either… or… 与neither… nor连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。

例如:

Either you or she is to go. 不是你去,就是她去。

Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you. 给你笔、信封和纸。

 

3 谓语动词与前面的主语一致

当主语有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as等词组成的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语部分一致。

例如:

The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory.

教师和一些学生在参观工厂。

He as well as I wants to go boating.

他和我想去划船。

 

4谓语需用单数

1)代词each以及由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语时,或主语中含有each, every时,谓语需用单数。

例如:

Each of us has a tape-recorder. 我们每人都有录音机。

There is something wrong with my watch. 我的表坏了。

2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。

例如:

The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English.

《天方夜谭》是英语爱好者熟悉的一本书。

3)表示金钱、时间、价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。

例如:

Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.

允许用三个星期来做准备。

Ten yuan is enough. 10元够了。

 

5指代意义决定谓语的单复数

1)代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。

例如:

All is right. 一切顺利。

All are present. 人都到齐了。

2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后,谓语动词用复数形式时强调这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时强调该集体的整体。

例如:

His family isn't very large. 他家成员不多。

His family are music lovers. 他家个个都是音乐爱好者。

但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。

例如:

Are there any police around? 附近有警察吗?

3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。

例如:

A number of +名词复数+复数动词。

The number of +名词复数+单数动词。

A number of books have lent out. 很多书被借出去了。

The majority of the students like English.  绝大多数学生都喜欢英语。

 

6与后接名词或代词保持一致

1)用half of, most of, none of, heaps of, lots of, plenty of等引起主语时,谓语动词通常与of后面的名词或代词保持一致。

例如:

Most of his money is spent on books. 他大部分的钱花在书上了。

Most of the students are taking an active part in sports. x/kw

大部分学生积极参加体育运动。

2)用a portion of, a series of, a pile of, a panel of等引起主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。例如:

A series of accidents has been reported. 媒体报道了一连串的事故。

A pile of logs was set beside the hearth. 炉边放了一堆木柴。

3)如many a或more than one所修饰的短语作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。但由more than… of作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。

例如:

Many a person has read the novel. 许多人读过这本书。

More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.

百分之六十多的学生来自这个城市。

本文 暂无 评论

Top