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高中英语语法: 直接引语和间接引语

2019-06-14 高中英语


   引述某人的话一般采用两种形式:一种是直接引语(Direct Speech),即原封不动地引用原话,把它放在引号内;另一种是间接引语(Indirect Speech),即用自己的话加以转述,被转述的内容不放在引号内。

 

一、 直接引语变间接引语

 

A. 陈述句的间接引语

 

   直接引语是陈述句,变为间接引语时,在多数情况下都构成一个that引导的宾语从句,引述动词通常是say, tell等。与此同时,间接引语中的人称、时态和其他方面也要相应有所变化。

  The foreigner aid to me, I like Beijing very much.那老外告诉我:我很喜欢北京。

  → The foreigner told me that he she liked Beijing very much. 那老外告诉我说他(她)很喜欢北京。

  She said,We are very fond of sports. 她说:我们都喜欢体育运动。

  → She said that they were very fond of sports. 她说他(她)们都喜欢体运动。

  I'll go over the grammar lesson once again,he said. 他说:我将把语法课再复习一遍。

  → He said he would go over the grammar lesson once again. 他说他将要把语法课再复习一遍。(that可省略)

 

B. 疑问句的间接引语

 

  1.一般疑问句和反意疑问句

  一般疑问句改为间接引语时,要用陈述语序,并要加连词if 或 whether,其主句动词常用ask, wonder, wantto know, didn't know等。句末不用问号。

  My teacher asked me, Do you like American country music 我老师问我:你喜欢美国乡村音乐吗?

  → My teacher asked me ifwhether I liked American country music. 我老师问我是否喜欢美国乡村音乐。

  You haven't been to Beijing, have you asked he. 他问:你没去过北,是吗?

  → He asked me ifwhether I had been to Beijing. 他问我是否去过北京。

 

  2.否定的一般疑问句和选择问句

  如果直接引语为否定的一般问句或选择疑问句时,用whetheror 连接。

  She said, Don't you know my telephone number 她说:你难道不知道我的电话号码吗?

  → She asked me whether I knew her telephone number or not. 她问我是知道她的电话号码。

  Do you like this one or that one Tom asked. 汤姆问:你是喜欢这个还是那个?

  → Tom asked me whether I liked this one or that one. 汤姆问我是喜欢这个还是那个。

 

  3.特殊疑问句

  间接引语为特殊疑问句时,间接引语前仍然用特殊疑问词作为连词引导宾语从句,注意从句必须用陈述语序,主句谓语动词常用ask。

  He asked, How do you like it 他问:你觉得怎样?

  → He asked me how I liked it. 他问我觉得它怎样。

  She asked me, What's the matter with you 她问我:你怎么啦?

  → She asked me what was the matter with me. 她问我我怎么啦。

  How many books do you have she asked. 她问:你有多少本书?

  → She asked me how many books I had. 她问我有多少本。

 

  4.其它

  英语中有些疑问句并非提出疑问,而是表示请求、劝告、建议等。这种疑问句变为间接引语时,往往采用其他的形式。

  ①.suggest doing

  Shall we all go to the film tonight said Michael. 迈克尔说:我们今晚都去看电影,好吗?

  → Michael suggested going to the film tonight. 迈克尔建议今晚都去看电影。

  What about having a drink he asked. 他问:喝杯怎么样?

  He suggested having a drink. 他建议喝一杯。

  ②.advise sb to do

  Why don't you go hiking asked James. 詹姆士问:你为什么不徒步旅行?

  James advised me to go hiking. 詹姆士建议我去徒步旅行。

  ③. offer to do

  He said, Would you like me to post the letter 他说:你要我寄信吗?

  He offered to ost the letter. 他主动提出寄信。

  ④.ask sb to do

  Will you please bring your reference book here tomorrow she said to me. 她对我说:劳驾你明天把你的参考书带来好吗?

  → She asked me to take my reference book there the next day. 她让我第二天把我的参考书带去。

 

C. 祈使句的间接引语

 

  1.直接引语为祈使句时,间接引语往往用复合宾来表示,其结构为主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语(动词不定式)。引述动词可根据口气选用tell, ask, order, command, request等词,句中please去掉。

  She said to me, Please have a rest. 她对我说:请休息一下。

  → She asked me to have a rest. 她要求我休息一下。

  Don't all answer at once, she said to the pupils. 她对学生说:大家不要齐声回答。→ She told the pupils not to answer all at once. 她叫学生不要齐声回答。

 

  2.带有let的祈使句(表示请求,建议或命令),可用suggest + -ing形式或suggest +that从句来表示其相应的意思。

  Let's go for a walk, said the girl. 那姑娘说,让我们去散散步吧。

  → The girl suggested going for a walk. 这女孩建议去散散步。

  The teacher sai, Let Lily tidy the classroom. 老师说:让莉莉整理教室。

  → The teacher suggested that Lily should tidy the classroom. 老师建议让莉莉整理教室。

 

D. 感叹句的间接引语

 

  1.直接引语是感叹句变为间接引语时,多采用宾语从句结构,既可用whathow引导,也可用that引导。

  What a clever boy you are!my teacher said to him. 老师对他说,你是个聪明的孩子啊!

  → My teacher told him what a clever boy he was. 老师对他说他是一个多聪明的孩子啊。

  → My teacher told him that he was a very clever boy. 老师说他是一个非常聪明的孩子。

  He said, How well you look! 他说:你看起来气色多好啊!

  → He said how well I looked. 他说我看起来是气色多好啊。

  → He said that I ooked very well. 他说我看起来气色很好。

 

  2.有些感叹句可以根据原句的意思,采用适当的动词变为陈述句,不需用间接宾语来转述。

  Help! he cried. 他喊到:救命啊!

  → He called for help. 他大声呼救。

  What terrible weather it is!he said. 他说:多么糟糕的天气!

  → He complained about the terrible weather. 他抱怨这糟糕的天气。

  Happy Chrismas! he said. 他说:圣诞快乐!

  He wished me a happy Christmas. 他祝我圣诞快乐。

 

 

二、 间接引语中的词语变化

 

  直接引语变为间接引语时,间接引语中的动词时态、人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、时间和地点状语以及主谓语词序往往要作相应的变化。

 

A. 时态的变化

 

  1.时态的变化

  ①现在时间推移到过去时间

  直接引语中的时态

  一般现在时

  现在完成时

  现在进行时

  现在完成进行时

  间接引语中的时态

  一般过去时

  过去完成时

  过去进行时

  过去完成进行时

  The old man said, I have lived in this street since 1960.

  →The old man said that he had lived in that street since 1960. 那老人说他自从196年起就住在那条街上了。

  He said, Is it raining

  → He asked if it was raining. 他问是不是正在下雨。

 

  ②过去时间推移到过去的过去

  直接引语中的时态

  一般过去时

  过去完成时

  过去进行时

  间接引语中的时态

  过去完成时

  过去完成时(不变)

  过去完成进行时或不变

  She said to me, I wrote a letter to my parents three days ago.

  →She told me that she had written a letter to her parents three days before.她告诉我她三天前已给她母亲写了一封信。

   What were you doing at seven p.m. yesterday he asked

  → He asked me what I was doing at seven p.m. the day before. 他问我前一天晚上七点在干什么。

 

  ③将来时间推移到过去将来时间

  直接引语中的时态

  一般将来时

  isamare going to do

  isamare to do

  间接引语中的时态

  过去将来时

  waswere going to do

  waswere to do

  He said, We shall get ready by eight o'clock.

  →He said that they ould get ready by eight o'clock. 他说他们将在8点前准备好。

  We are to meet at the school gate, she said to me.

  → Sh told me that they were to meet at the school gate. 她告诉我他们约定在校门口见面。

 

  ④间接引语中保持原来时态不变

  在下列情况下,间接引语中的谓语动词时态可以保持不变。

  a. 主句为现在时或将来时,间接引语的时态保持不变。

  He thinks, She will be back in a month.

  → He thinks she will be back in a month. 他想她将在一个月后回来。

  He says, I have accepted her invitation.

  He says he has accepted her invitation. 他说他已接受了她的邀请。

 

  比较:

  间接引语中的谓语动词时态对比。

  Sarah said to me,I have two brothers.   莎莎对我说:“我有两个弟弟。”

  Sarah told me that she has two brothers.  莎莎告诉我说她有两个弟弟。(说话才认为这情况是真实的)

  Sarah told me that she had two brothers.  莎拉告诉我说她有两个弟弟。(说话者对此没有什么把握)

  b. 间接引语表示的是现在的习惯动作、科学真理、客观事实、格言等。

  The geography teacher said to the students, The earth moves round the sun.

  → Th geography teacher told the students that the earth moves round the sun. 老师告诉学生地球围绕太阳转。

  He said, Every dog has his day.

  → He said that every dog has his day. 他说是人皆有出头日。

  c. 间接引语中动词表示的动作说话时仍在进行或状态仍然存在,时态可保持不变。

  He said,The window is brokn.

  → He said that the window is broken.他说玻璃窗碎了。

  Just now Brown said, My son is ill today.

  → Brown told me just now that his son is ill today. 布朗刚才告诉我说,他儿子今天病了。

  d. 间接引语中有明确的过去时间状语,仍可用一般过去时,不必改为过去完成时。

  The girl said, Iwas born in 1978.

  → The girl said that she was born in 1978.那女孩说她生于1978年。

  She said, My teacher was busy yesterday.

  → She said that her teacher was busy yesterday. 她说她老师昨天很忙。

 

  2.情态动词的变化

  情态动词在间接引语中都可以改为过去式,must表示必、推测、禁止等意思时,可不变;表示必须时可不变,也可用had to would have to

  The senior said, All men must die.

  → The senior said that all men must die. 那老者说人总是要死的。

  She said, I must go to see the doctor tomorrow afternoon.

  → She saidshe mustwould have to go to see the doctor the next afternoon. 她说第二天下午她一定得去看医生。

  He said to me, We used to go there every year.

  → He toldme that they used to come here every year. 他对我说他们过去每年都来这里。(used to在间接引语中不变)

B. 代词的变化

 

  1.人称代词的变化

  ①当主句的主语是第一人称时,引语中的人称代词不变。

  I said, You did quite well in the exam yesterday.

  → I said that you had done quite well in the exam the day before.我说你那天考得不错。

  ②直接引语中主语是第一人称时,在改为间接引语时,其人称与主句中的主语的人称一致。

  He said to Tom, I'll do my best to catch up with others.

  → He told Tom that he would do his best to catch up with others.   他告诉汤姆他将尽他所能赶上其他人。

  ③直接引语中主语是第二人称时,在改为间接引语时,其人称和主句的宾语相一致。

  He said to her, Where did you put the glasses

  → He asked her where she had put the glasses. 他问她,她把杯子放哪儿了。

  提示:

  如果主句中无宾语,应根据语境或想象,自添适当的宾语;如果直接引语中有呼语,则将其改为间接引语的宾语。

  Mother asked, Where have you been

  → Moher asked me where I had been. 母亲问我去哪儿了。

   Why are you late again, John the teacher asked.

  → The teacher asked John why he was late again. 老师问约翰为什么他又迟到。

  ④直接引语中主语是第三人称时,在改为间接引语时不发生变化。

  He said to Tom, She can help them.

  → He told Tom that she could help them. 他告诉汤姆她能够帮助他们。

 

  2.物主代词的变化

  You should not overlook your fault, Mum said to me.

  → Mum told me that I should not overlook my fault. 妈妈对我说我不应该忽略我的缺点。

  The two boys said, We have lost ur dog.

  → The two boys said they had lost their dog. 这两个男孩说他们的狗丢了。

 

  3.指示代词的变化

  直接引语中的指示代词

  this

  these

  间接引语中的指示代词

  that

  those

   She said, This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived.

  → She said that that wa the house in which Lu Xun had once lived. 她说那是鲁迅曾经住过的房子。

  I bought these flowers for you, Jane said.

  Jane said that she had bought those flowers for me. 简说那些花是她为我买的。

  I grow these tomatoes myself, he said.

  → He aid that he grew those tomatoes himself. 他说那些胡萝卜是他自己种的。

 

C. 时间和地点状语的变化

 

  1.时间状语的变化

  He said, I spoke to them yesterday.

  → He said that h had spoken to them the day before. 他说他前一天跟他们讲过话了。

  The student said,We have learned about 3,000 English words so far.

  →  The student said that they had learned about 3,000 English words by then. 那学生说到那时为止他们已学会了3,000个英语单词。

 

  2.地点状语的变化

  当直接引语变间引语时,地点状语here通常变为there。但如果说话人所在地点就是引述人所在地点,那么仍然使用here.

  Come here, please, he said.

  → He asked me to come here. 他叫我到这里来。(引述人地点不变)

  → He asked me to go there. 他叫我到那里去。(引述人地点发生变化)

  Here she burst out into a flood of tears, he said to me.

  → He told me that she had burst out into a flood of tears there. 他告诉我说,谈到那个地方她就放声大哭了起来。

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