高中英语语法:主谓一致和特殊句式

主谓一致的核心考点

1.就近一致原则

(1)ornot only...but also...neither...nor...either...or...whether...or...not...but...等连接两个或两个以上的并列主语时,通常根据就近一致原则,谓语动词要与离它最近的主语在数上保持一致。

Neither his parents nor I am able to persuade him to change his mind.

(2)here/there引导一个句子而主语又不止一个时,通常根据就近原则,谓语动词要与离它最近的主语在数上保持一致。

Here is a rulera few pencils and two copybooks.

 

2.意义一致原则

(1)谓语动词必须用单数的情况

①表示学科的名词以及works(工厂)news(消息)等作主语时,虽然本身为复数形式,但表示单数意义时,谓语动词仍用单数。

Politics is his favorite subject.

②表示某些组织机构的名词、书/报名、国名、地名等作主语时,虽然形式上是复数,但所表示的意义是单数,所以谓语动词用单数。

Do you know when the United Nations was set up?

(2)谓语动词必须用复数的情况

表示总称意义的名词,如peoplepolicepubliccattle等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

The police are searching for the murderer.

(3)谓语动词的形式依据主语表示的意义而定

①集体名词,如familyclassgroupteamclubcompanygovernmentpopulation等作主语时,谓语动词的形式根据其在语境中表示的意义而定。当其表示集体意义,强调整体概念时,谓语动词用单数;当其表示集体中各个组成部分,强调个体概念时,谓语动词用复数。

As far as I knowhis family is not very large but the family are all music lovers.

②“the+形容词/分词”表示“一类人”时,谓语动词用复数。

The poor were looked down upon in the old days.

 

3.语法一致原则

(1)and连接的两个名词作主语

①“a/the+名词单数+and+名词单数”表示一个人(双重身份),谓语动词用单数。

The teacher and poet often gives lectures around the city.

②“a/the+名词单数+anda/the+名词单数”表示两个人,谓语动词用复数。

The teacher and the poet have just arrived.

③“every+名词单数+andevery+名词单数”表示每一个人,谓语动词用单数。

Every boy and every girl has the right to receive education in our country.

④通常由两个部件组成的物品如:a knife and fork (一副刀叉)等作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

Bread and butter is not to his taste.

(2)表示时间、数量、长度及价格的名词,尽管有时是复数形式但常被看作是一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

Is fifty pounds enough?

(3)“分数/百分数+of+名词”作主语时,谓语动词的形式根据of后的名词的形式来定,如果名词是可数名词复数,谓语动词用复数形式;如果名词是单数可数名词或不可数名词,谓语动词用单数形式。

Two-thirds of the books are about science.

Only 30% of the work was done yesterday.

 

倒装句的核心考点

1.全部倒装

(1)There be/seem/appear/live/stand/lie/fly/exist/remain等存在句中。

Looktheres that bookshop I was telling you about.

(2)表示时间、地点和动作转移的副词如heretherenowthenupdowninawayout等置于句首,主语是名词而不是代词时,用完全倒装。此时,句子多用一般现在时或一般过去时。

There goes the phone.Ill answer it.

(3)such作表语置于句首时。

Such was Albert Einsteina simple man but the 20th centurys greatest scientist.

(4)直接引语的全部或部分位于句首时。

If you diewho will get your money?” asked Holmes.

(5)表示地点的介词短语位于句首时。

In the center of the square stands a monument.

(6)为平衡句子结构,或使上下文衔接紧密,而将作表语的介词短语、形容词、副词或分词提到句首,引起倒装。

Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil.

 

2.部分倒装

在下列几种情况下,只把助动词、系动词或情态动词放在主语之前,构成部分倒装。

(1)littlenevernotseldomneithernorhardlyrarelyby no meansat no timeunder no circumstancesin no case等表示否定意义的单词或短语位于句首时。

Little does he care about what others think.

(2)not...until...no sooner...than...scarcely/hardly...when...not only...but also...neither...nor...等句式中。

Neither does he drink nor smoke.

(3)only修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时。

Only then did I find I had made a mistake.

(4)so/such...that...从句中,当so+形容词/副词或such+名词位于句首时。

So exhausted was she that she wanted to have a rest.

(5)当表示前面所说的情况也适用于另一个人或事物时,常用“so/asbe动词/助动词/情态动词+主语”,表示“……也是……”。

Times have changed and so have I.

(6)neithernor位于句首,表示前面否定的内容也适用于另一个人或事物时,常用“neither/norbe动词/助动词/情态动词+主语”,表示“……也不……”。

They couldnt understand it at that timeand nor could we.

(7)省略if的虚拟条件句,把werehadshould提到主语前面。

Had it not been for your helpwe shouldnt have achieved so much.

(8)asthough引导的让步状语从句。

Try as she mightSue couldnt get the door open.

(9)may+动词原形”表示祝愿,通常把may置于句首,构成倒装语序。

May you succeed!

 

强调句的核心考点

1.使用助动词dodoesdid对谓语动词进行强调。

First impressions really do count.

2.运用强调句型来强调除谓语动词以外的其他句子成分。

强调句型的基本句型结构为:It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+其他成分。可用来强调句子的主语、宾语、状语、表语、同位语等成分。在复习强调句型时,要注意以下几个方面:

(1)强调句型中的主谓一致

在强调句型中,当对陈述句中的主语进行强调时,无论被强调的主语是单数还是复数,主句中的谓语动词都要用单数形式It is/was...,同时,that从句中的谓语动词要与被强调的主语在人称和数方面保持一致。

It is my parents that/who often help me get out of trouble.

(2)当对地点状语、时间状语或其他状语从句进行强调时,只能用连接词that,而不能用wherewhenwhyhow等。

It was on August 8,2008 that the 29th Summer Olympic Games were opened in Beijing.

(3)强调句型的疑问句

在强调句中,无论被强调部分是什么句子成分,变为一般疑问句时,都须将主句改为疑问语序,即将“It is/was+被强调部分+that+其他成分改为Is/Was it+被强调部分+that+其他成分?”或“疑问词+is/was it that+其他成分?”结构。

Was it her failing her exam that made her parents unhappy?

When was it that she changed her mind?

(4)在对not...until...结构中的until时间状语或时间状语从句进行强调时,要将句中的not移至until之前,构成:It is/was not until...that...。注意that从句中的谓语动词要变成肯定形式,而且不再采用倒装语序。

I didnt realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.

 

注意事项

1.如果由特殊疑问词引导的强调结构在句中作宾语从句时,从句必须使用陈述语序,不可用疑问语序。

He asked me who it was that took his umbrella by mistake.

2.强调句型结构中的反意疑问句式。

在强调句型结构中,其反意疑问句的主语及助动词必须与主句It is/was...保持一致。

It is Mary not you who wants to ask me about that matterisnt it?

3.强调句型结构与定语从句的混合使用。

在高考试题中,为了增加试题的难度,命题人常将强调句型与定语从句混合起来,使句子结构更加复杂。我们要注意从语法角度来分析句子,理清结构“强调句型与定语从句”。

It was on the farm where we worked that I got to know her.

4.强调句型与时间状语从句的辨析。

当用强调句型强调时间状语时,去掉“it is/was和连词that,原句仍然完整;而在时间状语从句中,若去掉it is/was”和连词“when/before”,原句不完整。

It was at 1428 that the terrible earthquake broke out.(强调句型)

It was 1428 when the terrible earthquake broke out.(状语从句)

 

省略句的核心考点

1.状语从句中的省略

whenwhileifas ifalthough/thoughasuntiloncewhetherunlesswhere等引导的状语从句中,如果其谓语动词为be,而主语与主句的主语相同时,则从句的主语和be可省略;或从句的主语为it,谓语动词为be时,也可省略从句中的itbe

When (I am) in troubleI always turn to my classmates for help.

If (it is) possiblethis machine can be fixed at once.

 

2.不定式的省略

单独使用不定式符号to代替不定式后被省略的动词,常用在be afraidexpectforgethopeintendlikelovemeanpreferrefusetrywantwish等词后;或放在表情绪的词后,代替被省略的动词,常见词有:gladhappypleased等;但是,如果不定式中含有behavehave been,则要保留behavehave been

—Will you please look after my house when Im away?

—Im glad to.

—Are you a sailor?

—No.But I used to be.

Your work hasnt been handed inbut it ought to have been.

 

3.常考的几个省略形式

if everif anyif not better/worse/taller...than等。

 

4.并列句中的省略

并列句中的两个对等句里的动词相同时,后者的动词可以省略。

He is going to Hong Kongbut his brother (is going) to America.

My room is on the third floor and hison the fifth.

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