高中英语语法知识汇总:代词

英语中的代词,按其意义、特征及在句中的作用分为九种:

人称代词 分为主格(如:I, you, he等)和宾格(如:me, you, him)

物主代词 分为形容性物主代词(如:my, his, your)和名词性物主代词(如:mine, his, yours)

指示代词 常见的有四个:this这,that那, these这些, those那些

反身代词 如:myself我自己,himself他自己,themselves他们自己

疑问代词 用在特殊疑问句中。有:who, whom, whose, what, which。如:Who is that boy? What do you like?

不定代词 如:some一些, many许多, both两个都, everything, everybody等

关系代词 引导定语从句。如:This is the boy who won the race.

相互代词 指each other 与 one another,意为“互相”

连接代词 疑问代词在引导从句时,都称为连接代词,包括who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever,whomever, whichever, whatever,一共九个。如:

It is clear enough what she meant. 她是什么意思很清楚。(引导主语从句)

I don’t care what they think. 他们怎么想我不管。(引导宾语从句)


第1讲人称代词

高中英语语法知识汇总:代词  第1张

第2讲 指示代词

人称代词分为主格和宾格。

考点1. 代词同位语

如果代词和名词指代相同时,常用主格或宾格作同位语,不用物主代词。改错:Our Chinese people are friendly.our改为we, 因为我们本身就是中国人。

考点2. 用人称代词宾格代替主格的情况

① 口语中作表语的人称代词一般用宾格,不用主格。—Who is it? —It’s me.

② 在比较句型中,as和than后的主格可以用宾格代替。I am taller than she/her.He is as tall as she/her.

③ but, except作“除了……”解并且位于主语之后时,后面可以跟主格也可跟宾格。Nobody but/except he/him knew it.

④ 人称代词单独出现时,常用宾格。Who runs faster, you or me?

第2讲 指示代词

考点1. this, that

that则指前面讲到过的事物,有承上的作用, this常指后面要讲到的事物,有启下的作用。I want to tell you this: the English party will be held on Saturday afternoon.He hurt his leg yesterday. That’s why he didn’t come.

考点1. that 指代前面提到的名词,后总是限制性的后置修饰语, 复数时要用those

that可以代指可数名词也可代指不可数名词。it和that都可替代“the+单数名词(可数或不可数)”,都是特指,但it指前面提到的“同一”事物,而that是指前面提到的“同类”事物。

第3讲 不定代词(一)

没有明确指定代替任何特定名词或形容词的词叫做不定代词,常用的不定代词有:

all, any, another, both, each, every, either, every, few, little, many, much, no, none, neither, one, other, some以及由 some, any, no, very 和 body, one, thing 构成的复合词

在指代时,one可以替换为:a+名词, 而it指特定的某一个,相当于the+名词。在the one和the ones中,one指代前面提到的可数名词。

① 从数量上:each用于两个或两个以上的人或物, 而every用于三个或三个以上的人或物。也就是说,只有两个时,必须用each, 三个及三个以上时,用each和every都行。Each/Every student has a computer.

② 从意义上:each侧重于个体,强调“每一个”, 而every侧重于整体,强调 “全部”。Each student has a computer. 每个学生都有台电脑。Every student has a computer. 所有的学生都有电脑。

③ 从词性上:every只能作形容词,而each可作代词、形容词和副词。Each boy has eaten one apple. (each为形容词)Each of them has eaten one apple. (each为代词)They each have eaten one apple. (each为代词,作同位语)They have eaten one apple each. (each为副词)

改错:

①There are many tall trees on every side of the road.②Every of the students in our class has a dictionary.

改为:

①把every改为each, 因为路只有两条边,而every用于三者及三者以上。②把Every 改为Each,或在Every后加one。

any, either表示“任何一个”时的区别

① any表示“任何”的意思, 用于三者及三者以上。Any child can do that.(定语)You may take any of them.(宾语)

② either是“两者中任何一个”的意思,可修饰或代替单数可数名词。如:Here are two pens. You may take either of them. (宾语)

③ each指两者时可与either互换。如:There are many trees on either/each side of the road.

neither, both与 all, none (both与all表示部分否定)

① both用于否定句,表示部分否定;表示完全否定时,用neither。如:Both of us are not teachers.我们俩并不都是教师。Neither of us is a teacher. 我们俩都不是教师。

② all 用于否定句,表示部分否定,完全否定用none。如:Not all the ants go out for food.(or: All the ants don’t go out for food.)并不是所有的蚂蚁都出去寻找食物。None of the money is mine.这钱一分也不是我的。

③ 另外,neither是“两者中没有一个”的意思,可以作形容词,修饰或代替单数可数名词,它所修饰的名词用单数形式,后面的谓语也用单数形式。如Neither boy knows French. 

another, other, others, the other, the others,the rest的区别

① “the other +名词复数” (或用the others) 表示“其余的全部……”;“other + 复数名词(或用others)”泛指“其他的(别的)人或物”(并不有意强调全部)。如:Five of the pencils are red, the others (the other pens) are yellow.Some are singing, and others are dancing.(others泛指其余的,指其余的绝大部分。暗示可能有极少数既没唱歌也没跳舞。如果用the others则指剩余的全部,表示其余的无一例外都在跳舞。)some…, some…, some…, others…,意为“一些……一些……一些”。

② the other 强调剩下的这一个,此时只有一个;常出现在one…the other中, 用于两者之间。如:He got two books; one is a textbook, the other is a novel.也可用于其他表示“只剩下这一个”的情况。如:There were three boys in the classroom. One is Tom, another is John, and the other is Ken.another修饰或代替单数可数名词,用于“三个或三个以上”,指代剩下的两个或两个以上中的一个。This coat is too dark. Please show me another.(宾语,外衣总数为三件及三件以上。除去这个外衣之外,剩下的起码有两件;如果只剩一件的话,就要用the other。)one … another/a second… a third…the other…常用于列举,意为“一个……一个……一个……一个,剩下的那一个”,用于三者或三者以上的排列。

③  another还可表示“再,又”。(参看:P. 32 many more + 名词,much more + 名词,与another)

④ the rest既可代替可数名词,也可代替不可数名词, 而another, other, others, the other(s)只能代替可数 名词。

⑤ else只能放在复合不定代词或者疑问词后。如:Did you see anybody else? 你还看见别的人吗?Who else was at the party? 聚会上还有谁?

⑥ each other, one another(相互)。按传统语法,each other 指两者;而 one another 指三者或三者以上。但在现代英语中,两者常可互换。如:You should help each other (one another). 你们应该互相帮助。We know each other’s (one another’s) weak points. 我们都彼此了解对方的缺点。

⑦ one after another(一个接一个), 如:I’m not surprised he’s feeling ill—he was eating one ice-cream after another!

⑧ “any other +单数名词”(别的 / 其他的任何一个)Shanghai is larger than any other city in China.

one way or another “以某种方式无论如何Everyone at the party was related (in) one way or another. These bills have to be paid one way or another. 


第4讲 不定代词(二)

考点1. something, anything, everything与somebody, anybody, everybody

在everyone (everybody)和everything中,every虽然表示“每一个”,但它侧重于“全部的,所有的”。因此,everyone (everybody)和everything虽然意为“每个人”,“每件事/物”,但却侧重于表示“全部的、所有的”。它们表示的是“整体”的概念。如:Is everyone here? 大家都到齐了吗?Everything goes well. 一切顺利。

在someone (somebody)和something中,some表示“特定”的某一个,属于“ 不确定特指”,即:虽然没有指明是哪一个,但也是“特定”的某一个,并且只能是“这个”而不能是别的任何一个。因此,someone (somebody)和something意为“某个人”“某件事/物”。它们表达的是“特定”的“个体”概念。如:Somebody broke the glass yesterday.昨天有人把杯子打碎了。Something is wrong with the machine.机器出故障了。

在anyone (anybody)和anything中,any是“任何一个”的意思。它们表达的是不确定的“个体”概念,即:所代指的可以是“这一个”,也可以是其他任何一个。它们意为“任何一个人”“任何一件事/物”。如:Has anybody been to Hong Kong in our class? 我们班有没有人去过香港?Is anything wrong with you? 你怎么了?

考点1. everyone 与every one

everyone是一个词,只用来指人,等于 everybody,在它后面不能跟介词of;every one是两个词,既可用来指人,也可用来指物,等于each one,后面可跟介词of。请看以下例句:

Everyone of the children likes this game.(误) 每个孩子都喜欢这个游戏。Every one of the children likes this game.(正) 

链接: everyday日常的,every day每天He recites everyday English every day.他每天背日常英语。

考点2. none, no one, nobody的区别

① no one,nobody只指人,nothing 指没有什么事物,none 兼指人和物。

② 作主语时,no one, nobody后的谓语动词一般用单数, 按传统语法,两者之后均不能接 of  短语。none代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词可用单数也可用复数形式。None后可跟of短语。如:No one (Nobody) knows. 谁也不知道。No one (Nobody) likes it. 没人喜欢它。None of the money has been found.那些钱都没被找到。None of the trees grow/grows well.那些树长得都不好。

③ none 往往暗示有一定的范围(这种范围通常就表现在其后的 of 短语上),着眼于数量概念,“特指的人或物一个也没有,一点儿也没有”。而 no one 或 nobody 则不暗示这种范围,即指“谁都没有。”体会下面的两组对话:A:Did any of your friends come to see you?  你的朋友当中有谁来看过你吗?B:None. 一个也没来。A:Did anyone come to see you? 有人来看过你吗?B:No one (Nobody). 谁也没来。

在回答 how many 或 how much 的提问时,通常用 none,而在回答 who 的提问时,通常用 no one 或 nobody。体会:A:How many English books have you read? 你读   过多少本英文书?B:None. 一本也没读。A:How much money did you give her? 你给了她   多少钱?B:None. 一分也没给。A:Who went to see the film? 谁去看电影了?B:No one (Nobody). 谁也没去。


考点1. something, somebody, nobody的特殊用法

① something意为“重要的人物”, 相当于 somebody。She thinks she’s something since she won the beauty contest. 选美比赛得了奖,她就自以为了不起了。链接:He thinks he is somebody but he is nobody.他自以为了不起,实际他一文不名。

② something还可表示“重要的事物”。These paintings were really something. 这些画确实出色。I think you may have something there. 我认为(答疑qq 329950885)在那方面你可能是有道理的。

③ something of a(an)+n.表示“可以说是一个……”的意思。Dr. James is a scholar and something of a philosopher. 詹姆斯博士是个学者,也可以说是个不错的哲    学家。

联系: He isn’t much of a cook.

考点5. everybody /something等人称代词替代问题

anyone/ anybody /somebody /everybody

① 个体时,谓语动词用单数Has anyone a dictionary he can lend me? Everyone in our class goes in for sports.

② 指“全部、无一例外”时,anyone/anybody在附加问句中,则其主语用复数代词表示此意:Anybody can enter for the race, can’t they?Everyone in our class goes in for sports, don’t they?

③ 在口语中,特别是对话中,为避免明确指出所指对象的性别。

Everybody was wearing their shorts.I told everyone to run as fast as they can.

something, everything 谓语动词用单数 (包括在反意问句的陈述和疑问部分中):Everything has gone wrong today, hasn’t it ?


第5讲 反身代词

反身代词指:myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves。

表示单数的反身代词以self结尾;表示复数的反身代词以selves结尾;

第一人称和第二人称前面用的是物主代词;第三人称前面用的是代词宾格。

反身代词有两种用法:反射,强调

精品-高中英语语法通霸-2.代词用法常考点分类专项总结归纳讲解与高考真题分类练习题及答案.doc

I. 反射

反身代词指代主语,与指代的名词或代词形成互指关系。反身代词和人称代词作宾语时具有不同的含义。如:

He saw himself in the mirror.他在镜子里看见了他自己。(himself ,he 为同一人)He saw him in the mirror.他在镜子里看见了他。(him 显然指另外一人)

因此当宾语和主语指代同一人时,要用反身代词,不能用人称代词。

I could not dress (myself) up at that time. 那个时候我不能打扮我自己。

She seated herself by the window.她拣了窗边的一个座位坐下来。

I am not myself today.  我今天不舒服。

She was beside herself with grief.她悲伤过度,精神失常了。Behave yourselves, children.孩子们,规矩点。

The girl fell off her bike and hurt herself.女孩从自行车上摔下来,受了伤。

改错:

He had a deep voice, which set himself from others in our small town. 【2013新课标Ⅰ】

答案:himself改为him

II. 强调常作同位语

I myself heard him say so yesterday.

我昨天亲自听他这么说的。

She did it herself. (=She herself did it. )

她自己做的。The story itself is not interesting.

故事本身并不令人感到有趣。

第6讲 代词it的常考点

考点1. 用于表达天气、环境、时间、距离、季节等

① It’s half an hour’s walk from here to our school. (指距离)

② It’s nice and warm here. (指天气、气候)

But it’s two o’clock now, and it’s time for us to go to school. (指时间)


考点2. make it 的用法

① 表示事业获得成功

You will make it if you try. 你会成功的,如果你努力的话。

He’s never really made it as an actor. 他当演员从未有所成就。

② 表示某人做成某事

You needn’t worry; he will make it. 你不必担心,他会办成的。

I thought he would be too old to get to the top of the mountain, but he made it at last. 我原以为他年纪大爬不到山顶,但最后他还是爬上去了。

③ 表示设法做到某事

I’ve been having violin lessons every two weeks, but I think I’ll make it every week from now on. 我一直是每两个星期上一次小提琴课,但是我想从现在起每个星期都上课。

④ 表示及时抵达某地

We are too late; I don’t think we can make it. 我们太迟了,我想我们难以准时赶到了。

The train won’t leave for another ten minutes, so I think we can make it. 离开车还有10分钟,我想我们能赶得上。

⑤ 表示约定时间

—Shall we make it next week? —OK, let’s make it next week. —下个星期可以吗?—好的,咱们就定在下个星期吧。

Let’s make it at 8:30. Is that all right for you? 我们约在8点半吧,这对你合适吗?

⑥ 表示病情好转

The doctor knew that the patient was unlikely to make it.医生知道那个病人没什么希望了。

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